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Available Projects

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These ideas have been submitted to the UCT Knowledge Co-op; they are available to students at UCT who may choose them for their research topics towards a degree.

They are listed in the following categories:

N.B. Projects often do fit in more than one category and so may be listed more than once.


Project Name

Project Description

Category 1: Education

# 322. Impact of care-givers on children Study of care-givers for un-parented children; the level of care they provide and how this impacts on the (resilience of) the children in their care. Access through social worker supporting them.

# 358. Safe school for girls

Determine needs around school safety for girls in primary schools of Khayelitsha – violence prevention strategies – and identify possible solutions for current challenges.

# 385. Early (bi)literacy development

Document a programme to develop children's early literacy/biliteracy & mentoring adults to support this.

# 435. Predict aptitude for PC programming

Assess the efficacy of the measures used to predict computer programming aptitude by analysing the correlation between various measures and future programming performance.

# 439. Training needs re gender

Needs analysis of local Sport for Development organisations regarding training workshops for staff in gender related topics and in impact assessment.

# 470. Support for home-based ECD

Document the work and success of a programme supporting non-working parents in Delft to teach their pre-school children at home.

# 471. Materials for home-based ECD

Develop and write up training material for a programme supporting non-working parents in Delft to teach their toddlers at home.

# 505. Where to provide educational support?

Compare benefits and disadvantages of placing disadvantaged learners in Model C schools vs providing educational support programmes to them in their home communities.

# 506. Level of intervention to improve school outcomes 

How much contact time is needed for underperforming learners to succeed in school? What outcomes can be expected from different levels of support - holiday programme vs after school support vs full-time placement in a functional school?

# 507. Successful school phase transition

National annual assessment show that outcomes of learners receiving support improve in foundation phase, but drop in later phases. What is needed to maintain the improvement throughout all phases of schooling?

# 510. Socio-economics of learners

Sketch the socio-economic reality of high school learners in Langa. 40% of learners are from other townships.

# 512. Psycho-social support by NGOs Evaluate the need for psychosocial support provided by NGOs in Langa. Consider the need in the community, the current offering by government and the gap (if any) for NGOs to fulfil.
# 535. Evaluate Ocean Conservation education Evaluation the impact of the Shark Spotters Ocean Conservation and Safety Education Program on the beneficiaries (learners and the schools). 
# 555. isiXhosa literacy support Assess the impact of a voluntary afterschool programme on isiXhosa literacy and comprehension.
# 556. Support for learning to read Assess the impact of voluntary afterschool literacy support on student learning in reading. 
# 576. Youth substance use intervention Assess the impact of the Icelandic family/school-based 'Planet youth' approach to address youth alcohol abuse in a rural school (George).
# 577. Impact of ocean immersion for kids Determine the impact of the Marine Explorers immersion programme on behaviour of participants towards reaching the goal of a 'healthy functioning ocean'.
# 578. Criteria for continued programme impact What has to be in place for a Shark education centre visit to have longer-term impact on learners? Develop a ‘tick list’ of requirements for the school and the SEC.
# 595. Assess educational support programmes Evaluate the structure and processes of the after-school or the in-school offering of a primary school-based education support programme. 
# 596. Education-linked internship Placement in a primary school-based education support programme, with focus on curriculum development/ assessment in accordance with WCDoE standards.

Category 2: Community Development/Social Development

# 36. 40-year history of children's movement

Write up the history of the Children’s Rights Movement over the last 40 years. Consider its impact in any focus area: food security, health, media, alternative transport, anti-bullying.

# 105.1 Foster Mother Screening

Review HfH's process for screening & training foster mothers for cluster foster care; compare to alternatives for good practice.

Keywords: Soc Development, Psychology, child care.

# 359. Scaling up an NGO

Develop scenarios for scaling up opportunities for Boxgirls – an NGO to empower girls in Khayelitsha.

# 365. Training tool for foster mums

Develop a training tool for (new) foster mothers in consultation with a cluster foster care provider. Include modules on how to work with troubled children; approaches to stay connected to the kids

# 380. Reality of homelessness

Sketch the reality of homelessness in the Northern suburbs. Provide accurate figures re homelessness and reasons why people are on the streets – differentiated across districts.

# 382. Safe space for the homeless

Evaluation of a Safe Space for Homeless people in the Northern suburbs; study to enable replication of this pre-shelter model.

#391. Active citizenship Explore whether the notion of active citizenship (in a wide sense including the P4 approach) contributes to the long-term sustainability of the physical as well as social aspects around a person’s home.

# 401. What theory fits a social development model

Theorise the integrated Streetscapes approach of supporting ‘roofless’ people in the process of getting off the street permanently. What existing models fit?

# 423. Teaching FAS learners

Study appropriate ways to accommodate high rate of learners with foetal alcohol syndrome in a school near Crossroads.

# 424. Social work placement

Social work practical at Klipfontein Methodist Primary school, Crossroads - alcohol abuse, poverty.

# 430. Getting youth into employment

Assess a volunteering / self-development programme to empower youth for finding jobs. Compare its impact with other job skill models.

# 463. Rodent control in informal settlements: COCT response

Assess the current methodology of the CoCT in dealing with rodent infestation in townships in the City. Suggest improvements and ways for other municipalities to access such service.

# 464. Engaging communities in rodent control in informal settlements

Research ways the community can be engaged to participate, supplement or join the fight against rats, to create an effective multiple-stakeholder, sustainable solution.

# 479. Climate change adaptations

Compile case studies of successful introduction of permaculture/ climate change adaptations in low-income communities. Detail elements which are / are not applicable to the context in Mitchells Plain.

# 481. Baseline of self-sufficiency

Conduct a baseline of self-sufficiency (survival/food-security/climate resilience) of homes in Rocklands.

# 490. Perceptions of cancer risk

Perceptions of cancer risk vs immediate threats to survival for people living in high risk environments. 

# 499. Use of child care grant

Investigate the ways in which child support grants are actually used. Identify approaches to ensure children do benefit from them.

# 500. Assess referral system pathways

Assess referral system pathways of a centre for abused women – do clients reach partner organisations they are referred to? Or alternate services (shelter / ARV / SAPS)?

# 502. Impact of public education on IPV, HTS

Have prevention workshops made a difference to uptake of IPV and HTS services in the geographic area? HIV testing services (HTS) intimate partner violence (IPV).

# 505. Where to provide educational support?

Compare benefits and disadvantages of placing disadvantaged learners in Model C schools vs providing educational support programmes to them in their home communities.

# 508. Remain intact in dysfunctional context

Understand what it is that keeps some families / teachers / learners intact in a dysfunctional schooling context.

# 523. Enrolment and retention rates in S4D

Study enrolment and retention rates for a Sport for Development intervention, compared with non-sport youth development intervention?

# 524.  Assess services for the aged

Qualitative study to assess the benefit of services (housing/health/ social enterprise) provided to pensioners.

# 525. Policy for serving pensioners

Develop a Policy document including rules/codes of conduct relating to programmes for pensioners; review existing policy, address gaps.

#534. Do homeless shelters 'work'? Why are homeless shelters often not seen as a desirable option in assisting the person to move from the streets. Are there any other transitional housing models which would be more effective?
# 537. Forest beekeeping for rural community development A review of the success of various types of forest beekeeping methodologies, training programmes, and beekeeping organisational structures and their impact on rural development.
# 538. Pro-community ecosystem restoration. A study of the types of interventions or structures needed to ensure that ecosystem restoration projects are ecologically successful and supportive of local communities in rural areas.
# 542. Barriers to constructive occupation What factors prevent the involvement of beneficiaries of clinics for pensioners in activities. Is it time, money, distance, lack of desire?
# 543. Internship: Serving pensioners Internship with an agency providing housing, clinic, social enterprise for pensioners.
# 545. Assess model to strengthen NPOs A (formative) evaluation of the Funder Plus Grant Making model, which offers broad support to non-profits it funds
# 548. Assess youth services Evaluate the effectiveness of any programme of a non-profit offering comprehensive holistic youth development in Langa.
# 550. What are NPOs in Obs doing? A quantitative study of NPOs based/ operating in Observatory: reasons and benefits of the location to them, intended and actual impacts on the community in Obs and adjacent suburbs.
# 551. Responsible giving to the homeless Study of the “Give responsible” campaign. Giving to those begging vs supporting NPOs working toward them changing their lives: What is the solution and how best get public buy-in into that?
# 552. Is Public Participation process constitutional? Does the current Public Participation Process for EIAs meet the constitutional needs of the public? Case study: keeping urban development non-threatening to survival of endangered leopard toads.
# 554. Improve uptake of follow-up service Determine reasons why clients (especially Sexual Violence Victims) don’t use follow up services. Suggest ways to increase uptake.
# 560. Combat stigma of homelessness Study elements of stigma surrounding people living on the street; write up findings as articles to address such stigma.
# 568. Track success of job-seekers Track employment outcomes for job-seekers from OfW: type, duration, role of OfW in success.
# 569. Impact of unemployed movement Assess the impact of membership & volunteering in a movement for the unemployed on its members’ social and psychological well-being, their economic situation.
# 570. Decision making to find work Study job-seeking decisions of unemployed persons: What jobs to apply for? What interviews to attend? What motivates them to keep looking? How do they engage informal employment opportunities?
# 571. Economics of job-seeking Detail the cost of job-seeking to the unemployed (copy & print documents, travel, data, airtime, postage, clothing, grooming). Define elements of a humane employment process and its value to employers
# 584. Impact of spirituality on rehabilitation of homeless persons Determine the impact of spirituality/ spiritual practice / belonging on Drug and Alcohol rehabilitation of homeless persons.
# 585. What motivates support for homeless ministry What motivates someone to support a faith-based rehabilitation and support programme for homeless persons? Consider psychological and demographic trends.
# 590. Substance use as a cause for homelessness Study the impact of arrests and fines on substance use; do they act as a deterrent or increase the usage? Is there a causal connection with becoming homeless?
# 591. Strengths of homeless persons Study into positive outcomes of having been homeless. Consider ‘giving back’, resilience, factors that make for good employees.
# 593. Cost of holistic support for homeless Determine the cost of a holistic approach to support homeless persons in the process of getting off the street permanently; compare this to the cost of doing nothing, and of alternatives (shelters

Category 3: Economics / Commerce

# 250. Marketing electric vehicles

Develop a marketing programme for Evs on UCT campus and beyond.

286. Models for conserving biodiversity

Develop alternative models to manage agricultural use of Renosterveld. What is the cost of conserving bio-diversity of critical areas and how is it shared. Link to local land reform initiatives.

# 499. Use of child care grant

Investigate the ways in which child support grants are actually used. Identify approaches to ensure children do benefit from them.

# 510. Socio-economics of learners

Sketch the socio-economic reality of high school learners in Langa. 40% of learners are from other townships.

#528.  Cost of factory farming eggs Assess the environmental impact of commercial/ industrial egg production in South Africa and its cost. Identify costs & who bears them; consider the amount of electricity used and relate to carbon footprint.
# 531. Economics of prostitution in SA Compare the costs to the state of the present legal framework on prostitution vs a system where those selling sex are decriminalised and supported to exit
# 537. Forest beekeeping for rural community development A review of the success of various types of forest beekeeping methodologies, training programmes, and beekeeping organisational structures and their impact on rural development.
# 558. Who owns the water? Study into the implications of public ownership of a commons resource (water); what should inform equitable access. Case study of the Fishhoek/Clovelly Valley & its wider implications.
# 568. Track success of job-seekers Track employment outcomes for job-seekers from OfW: type, duration, role of OfW in success.
# 569. Impact of unemployed movement Assess the impact of membership & volunteering in a movement for the unemployed on its members’ social and psychological well-being, their economic situation.
# 570. Decision making to find work Study job-seeking decisions of unemployed persons: What jobs to apply for? What interviews to attend? What motivates them to keep looking? How do they engage informal employment opportunities?
# 571. Economics of job-seeking Detail the cost of job-seeking to the unemployed (copy & print documents, travel, data, airtime, postage, clothing, grooming). Define elements of a humane employment process and its value to employers.
# 573. Informal work as a bridge into jobs? What proportion of the unemployed in Cape Town who have tried informal work? Why did they stop? What barriers to making it more profitable? What type is considered appealing or not? 
# 588. Contribution of voluntary lifeguards Assess the contribution of voluntary lifeguards to SA: drownings prevented/duty hours / the job creation potential / calculate impact on the burden of drowning.
# 589. What does it take to find a job? Determine young persons’ pathways to find a decent job - how long does it take? How many employment programmes? Compare youth from different areas. 
# 593. Cost of holistic support for homeless Determine the cost of a holistic approach to support homeless persons in the process of getting off the street permanently; compare this to the cost of doing nothing, and of alternatives (shelters).

Category 4: Orphans/ (vulnerable) children/ parenting

# 36. Thirty-year history

Write up the 30-year history of a movement focussed on children's rights; either as a whole or an in-depth look at one of its elements, for example, child-to-child health centres, well-being, (massage and yoga).

# 161.1 Evaluate "First 1000 Days" programme

Assess the First 1000 days programme run by Living Hope” – measure the impact of the programme via health outcomes of the babies of participating mothers.

# 358. Safe school for girls

Determine needs around school safety for girls in primary schools of Khayelitsha – violence prevention strategies – and identify possible solutions for current challenges.

# 365. Training tool for foster mums

Develop a training tool for (new) foster mothers. Esp best way to work with troubled children.

# 423. Teaching FAS learners

Study into reasons for and possible interventions into alcohol abuse at very young age (7 years) at a school near Crossroads. Study appropriate ways to accommodate high rate of learners with foetal alcohol syndrome in a school near Crossroads.

# 424. Social work placement

Social work practical at Klipfontein Methodist Primary school, Crossroads - alcohol abuse, poverty.

# 439. Training needs re gender

Needs analysis of local Sport for Development organisations regarding training workshops for staff in gender related topics and in impact assessment.

# 459. TB in families

Sketch the social impact of TB-infected mothers (esp DRTB) on families, children.

# 460. Culture of child abuse

Why do caregivers accept that abuse (physical, sexual) of children in their care is inevitable? How can this “culture” be challenged.

# 470. Support for home-based ECD

Document the work and success of a programme supporting non-working parents in Delft to teach their pre-school children at home.

# 471. Materials for home-based ECD

Develop and write up training material for a programme supporting non-working parents in Delft to teach their toddlers at home.

# 504. Role of Nutrition in schooling

Conduct a literature review on evidence that providing food to children in Primary school supports their learning.

# 506. Level of intervention to improve school outcomes 

How much contact time is needed for underperforming learners to succeed in school? What outcomes can be expected from different levels of support - holiday programme vs after school support vs full-time placement in a functional school?

# 507. Successful school phase transition

National annual assessment show that outcomes of learners receiving support improve in foundation phase, but drop in later phases. What is needed to maintain the improvement throughout all phases of schooling?

#532. Youth living on the street What factors push and pull youth to live on the street? Is there a generational cycle?
#533. Mothers with babies on the streets Identify effective intervention models to assist mothers living with babies/children on the streets to move from the streets. How break the generational cycle?
# 576. Youth substance use intervention Assess the impact of the Icelandic family/school-based 'Planet youth' approach to address youth alcohol abuse in a rural school (George).

Category 5: Health / Public health

# 161.1 Evaluate "First 1000 Days" programme

Assess the First 1000 days programme run by Living Hope” – measure the impact of the programme via health outcomes of the babies of participating mothers.

# 459. TB in families

Sketch the social impact of TB-infected mothers (esp DRTB) on families, children.

# 463. Rodent control in informal settlements: COCT response

Assess the current methodology of the CoCT in dealing with rodent infestation in townships in the City. Suggest improvements and ways for other municipalities to access such service.

# 465. Health risks of rodent infestation in informal settlements

Highlight the serious health issues resulting from ineffective response to rodent infestation in townships. Focus on Imizamo Yethu, Hout Bay.

# 483. KAB of cancer risk in HSF students

Determine the Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviour (KAB) of cancer risk factors of Health sciences students at different stages of their training.

# 487. Where find health information?

Investigate what sources are deemed credible for health related information; which communication channels are used to access it?

# 489. Evaluate health awareness campaign

Evaluate a key health awareness campaign (cancer risk factors) in terms of changing Knowledge. Survey/ focus group/ experimental study.

# 490. Perceptions of cancer risk

Perceptions of cancer risk vs immediate threats to survival for people living in high risk environments. 

# 502. Impact of public education on IPV, HTS

Have prevention workshops made a difference to uptake of IPV and HTS services in the geographic area? HIV testing services (HTS) intimate partner violence (IPV).

# 504. Role of Nutrition in schooling

Conduct a literature review on evidence that providing food to children in Primary school supports their learning.

#530. Health risks arising from flashers Is there evidence that flashers pose a risk to people with photosensitive epilepsy (PSE)? a) compile a literature review on associated hazards; (b) assess the likely exposure to flashing from such devices; (c) make recommendations for a municipal bylaw to limit any health consequences.
# 540. Hypertension in age Update an earlier study into hypertension and diabetes among the elderly
# 541. HIV in older persons What are the challenges for older persons living with HIV? What implications of this shift and supportive interventions?
# 561. Vaccine hesitancy Explore the concept of vaccine hesitancy and the extent to which it is a barrier for HPV vaccination in South Africa. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
# 562. HPV vaccination for boys Build a case for HPV vaccination in boys in South Africa. Consider cost-effectiveness of including boys / feasibility and acceptability / health provider perspectives.
# 563. Lifestyle risk when living with cancer Conduct an assessment of lifestyle risk in people living with cancer at CANSA care homes, using CANSA’s lifestyle risk assessment tool; consider modifiable risk factors.
# 564. Smoking cessation Compare smoking cessation interventions in South Africa; determine the most effective, feasible and acceptable options.
# 575. Impact of the friendship bench Assess the use of lay 'behavioural change counsellors' to address mental health and suicide risk in George.
# 579. Why continue harmful behaviour? Determine what makes people continue behaviour they know is harmful/damaging to the environment. What needs to happen to take insight to new behaviour?
# 592. Substance use as mental health issue Could an integrated programme for homeless persons (Streetscapes) be regarded a community mental health intervention? How to measure its effectiveness?

Category 6: Information Systems / IT

#324. IT course development Develop training material for accreditation purposes for one of more of the following courses: Graphic Design; Web Development; PC Support; Mobile Application User.

# 435. Predict aptitude for PC programming.

Assess the efficacy of the measures used to predict computer programming aptitude by analysing the correlation between various measures and future programming performance

# 515. CV tool & database Develop a database to enable creating and uploading CVs; it needs to be centralised and accessible online. 
# 549. Marketing Observatory Place marketing – develop a framework to market Obs as a destination. Framework to include messaging, platforms, campaigns etc.
# 567. Transparency App for food choices Develop an App for the front-end interaction with consumers enabling them to scan a barcode of a TIA-approved product and make informed food choices.

Category 7: Science & Engineering

# 248. Electronics needed for EVs

Improve electronic systems for use of electric vehicles in local conditions. development of the control and management system for the vehicle and the development of the back end system.

286. Models for conserving bio-diversity

Develop alternative models to manage agricultural use of Renosterveld. What is the cost of conserving bio-diversity of critical areas and how is it shared. Link to local land reform initiatives.

# 352. Mapping to track viability of Brunia

Determine baseline data set for Brunia laevis distribution within the Overberg. Measure population sizes using drones and GIS.

# 354. Fynbos Vulnerability Index

Identify and add new species to the Vulnerability index for sustainable harvesting of fynbos species through a survey of pack sheds; expand the sustainable harvesting field guide.

# 445.  Mapping potential fynbos biodiversity corridors in Cape Town.

A study to map potential fynbos biodiversity corridors in Cape Town, considering various fynbos ecotypes and urban spaces that could become stepping stones for animals, birds and insects.

# 462. A model for rodent control in informal settlements

Examine rodent control options for an informal settlement (Imizamo Yethu). Identify sustainable environmentally friendly solutions & related issues (waste control / separation / recycling).

# 476. Success of alien invasive clearing

Measure impacts of alien invasive clearing across the Agulhas Plain using repeat photography, existing data and drone photos.

# 477. Model harvesting compliance

Develop an automated model to estimate the population size and level of harvesting compliance using monitoring data collected through the ifynbos app.

# 478.  Rehabilitation in afromontane forest Evaluate the rehabilitation efforts and health of an afromontane forest after fire and provide recommendations for further efforts.

# 479. Climate change adaptations

Compile case studies of successful introduction of permaculture/ climate change adaptations in low-income communities. Detail elements which are / are not applicable to the context in Mitchells Plain.

# 480. Indicators for climate resilience

Identify suitable indicators for changes in resilience to climate change, self-sufficiency and wellbeing resulting from permaculture / the SEEDing Futures programme.

# 526. Humane animal care centre

Outline best practice for developing a humane animal care /adoption organisation’s operational centre based on Green Building principles.

# 538. Pro-community ecosystem restoration A study of the types of interventions or structures needed to ensure that ecosystem restoration projects are ecologically successful and supportive of local communities in rural areas.
# 544. Tree planting to restore ecosystem & offset carbon A study into the potential for tree planting to both offset carbon and contribute to ecosystem restoration.
# 557. Slithers of landownership on the urban edge Explore the tension between landuse, landownership and biodiversity on the urban edge of an African metro. Determine the impact of residential spaces on an abutting national park and river – Clovelly and the Silvermine River as case study.
# 565. Waste Management on egg farms Identify the poultry waste materials produced by commercial egg layer farms, especially pollutants contained in the litter and their disposal procedures.

Category 8: Other

# 352. Mapping to track viability of Brunia

Determine baseline data set for Brunia laevis distribution within the Overberg. Measure population sizes using drones and GIS.

# 375. Conflicting spheres of  governance Case study of Public Representatives in Cape Town as elected officials operating between levels, spheres and entities of governance.
# 377. Urban edge: opportunity for crime Case study: fractured spheres of government make room ‘outside the law’ for crime along urban edges.

# 456. Impact of non-violence work in prison.

A study into the impact of the Alternatives to Violence project with prisoners in Pollsmoor on recidivism rates post release.

# 511. Establishing a law clinic

What barriers do residents of Langa experience in access to legal advice? What specific legal needs are most common?

# 516. Early history of Knersvlakte

Study and document the archaeological sites and early history of the Knersvlakte. Whole or specific reserves. Funding may be made available for the study.

# 526. Humane animal care centre

Outline best practice for developing a humane animal care /adoption organisation’s operational centre based on Green Building principles.

# 529. Regulations for rotating flashers Document policies to manage health and light nuisance risks/ limit the installation of flashers in urban areas. What arguments and evidence inform such policy?
# 549. Marketing Observatory Place marketing – develop a framework to market Obs as a destination.  Framework to include messaging, platforms, campaigns etc.
# 552. Is Public Participation process constitutional? Does the current Public Participation Process for EIAs meet the constitutional needs of the public? Case study: keeping urban development non-threatening to survival of endangered leopard toads.
# 557. Slithers of land ownership on the urban edge Explore the tension between land use, landownership and biodiversity on the urban edge of an African metro. Determine the impact of residential spaces on an abutting national park and river – Clovelly and the Silvermine River as case study.
# 558. Who owns the water? Study into the implications of public ownership of a commons resource (water); what should inform equitable access. Case study of the Fishhoek/Clovelly Valley & its wider implications.
# 565. Waste Management on egg farms Identify the poultry waste materials produced by commercial egg layer farms, especially pollutants contained in the litter and their disposal procedures.
# 566. Faith responses to our food systems Explore how faith communities deal with the ethical, moral, environmental-social-economic issues arising through industrial agriculture and impacting our food systems
# 572. How do movements of/for the unemployed arise? What contexts and conditions give rise to movements of/for the unemployed? Consider political, social, economic, historical contexts?
# 573. Informal work as a bridge into jobs? What proportion of the unemployed in Cape Town who have tried informal work. Why did they stop? What barriers to making it more profitable? What type is considered appealing or not? 
# 574. Priorities in job creation  What are government priorities for creating employment? How much focus on creating work in high unemployment areas?
# 578. Criteria for continued programme impact What has to be in place for a Shark education centre visit to have longer-term impact on learners? Develop a ‘tick list’ of requirements for the school and the SEC.
# 584. Impact of spirituality on rehabilitation of homeless persons Determine the impact of spirituality/ spiritual practice / belonging on Drug and Alcohol rehabilitation of homeless persons.
# 585. What motivates support for homeless ministry What motivates someone to support a faith-based rehabilitation and support programme for homeless persons? Consider psychological and demographic trends.
# 586. Laws to keep order without criminalising homelessness What legal framework can balance the need to maintain order on the streets, without criminalising people for being homeless?
# 587. Right to shelter and dignity for homeless What does the constitutional / human right to shelter and dignity require of the City of Cape Town in terms of provision for people who are homeless?
# 590. Substance use as cause for homelessness Study the impact of arrests and fines on substance use; do they act as a deterrent or increase the usage? Is there a causal connection with becoming homeless?

This table was updated in February 2020

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